Tuesday, February 19, 2008

"To E or not to E" in Cancer?

To E or not to E” in cancer?

Despite lots of evidence through the years that very good diets, and the antioxidants therein are helpful to prevent and treat cancer, poor studies still come out once in a while that not only reflect a very poor understanding of nutrition but what antioxidants really are, and how they function. The February issue of the J. Clinical Oncology published an article warning that antioxidants at high dose may be harmful in the treatment of cancer. Before we discuss the role of nutrition and antioxidants in cancer, lets review what modern Oncology has to offer:

The war on cancer: an anatomy of failure, a blueprint for the future.”

Book review JAMA 2006;295:2891

  • The top 5 cancers (prostate, breast, lung, colon, and pancreas) have changed little since 1995
  • Improvement in mortality 1% for 10/28 most common cancers mostly due to food refrigeration, better diet and hygiene, better supportive care, and early detection
  • 19th century bacteriology influenced cancer theory. Misunderstanding has lingering consequences: “generation of scientists and scholars, misguided by flawed hypothesis, often commit their talents and energy as well as human and financial resources, in an unproductive pursuit of a false lead.”
  • More pervasive and counterproductive [idea] developed… that cancer cells, like bacteria, are foreign invaders that must be eradicated at any cost. The result has been more aggressive cytotoxic chemotherapy with few cures and an inefficient trial-and-error drug development strategy that continues today.”
  • Main two ideas of modern oncology: exploit differences between normal and cancer cells, and drugs must be cytotoxic to be successful
  • “Drug development… remains mostly anchored in this century-old, conceptually antiquated, technically inefficient, labor intensive, costly, and low yield ‘hit-and-miss’ (mostly miss) screening approach engineered and sponsored by the National Cancer Institute.”
  • “The cell-killing paradigm has failed to achieve its objective… how does this system persist?…The increasing prominent role of the pharmaceutical industry in drug development… career advancement, relationship between productivity and job security, salary sources, and growing dependence on pharmaceutical companies for funding.”
  • “The information pipeline, generated by clinical researchers and supported by their sponsors and publishers, fosters standards of care that are reinforced by financial incentives and the extraordinary capacity of physicians for self-delusion, and by unrealistic expectations of consumers nurtured by the media.”
  • Future: prevention, target underlying molecular genetic defects, focus on patient outcome, not tumor measurements.

OK, now let’s look at the field of nutrition and antioxidants:

“Patients have always asked questions during or after diagnosis about, for example, diet. Until recently, most oncologists gently replied, ‘it doesn’t matter.’ I suspect those days are drawing to a close... Tobacco cessation, reduced fat intake, extremes in diet and increased exercise may alter prognosis and outcome in patients with cancer” (J. Lancet 2004;363:1005 .) “Drawing to a close…” for sure. Let’s look at the evidence:

Perhaps the best article I have seen in a while is “Apoptosis (cell death) by dietary factors” (J. Carcinogenesis 2007;28:233.) Here are the main points:

· “In spite of substantial progress in the development of anticancer therapies, the incidence of cancer is still increasing worldwide. Recently, chemoprevention by the use of naturally occurring dietary substances is considered as a practical approach to reduce the ever-increasing incidence of cancer.”

· “By making modifications in the diet, more than 2/3 of human cancers could be prevented…. Dietary chemopreventive compounds offer great potential in the fight against cancer by inhibiting the carcinogenesis process through the regulation of cell defensive and cell death machineries.”

· “Apoptosis, a form of programmed cell death, plays a fundamental role in the maintenance of tissues and organ systems by providing a controlled cell deletion to balanced cell proliferation. The last decade has witnessed an exponential increase in the number of studies investigating how different components of the diet interact at the molecular and cellular level to determine the fate of a cell. It is now apparent that many dietary chemopreventive agents with promise for human consumption can also preferentially inhibit the growth of tumor cells by targeting one or more signaling intermediates leading to induction of apoptosis.”

· “The two major pathways that initiate apoptosis are extrinsic (death receptor-mediated,) and intrinsic (mitochondrial mediated.) Mitogenic and stress responsive pathways are involved in the regulation of apoptotic signaling. Noteworthy is the crosstalk between some of these pathways.”

· Nutrients found to work in apoptosis:

ECGC Green tea

Curcumin Turmeric

Genistein Soy

I3C Cruciferous

Sulpharanes Cruciferous

Beta carotenes Veggies

Resveratrol Grapes

Isothiocyanates Cruciferous

Luteolin Celery, green pepper, peppermint

Lycopene Tomatoes

Anthocyanins Pomegranate, wolfberry, plankton, algae

Delphidin Pigmented fruits, berries

Lupeol, sylimarin Mango, olive oil, herbs

Gingerol Ginger

Capsaicin Red pepper

Sulfur Onions garlic

Let me translate: Everything about the Universe and our bodies is based on Energy and Information (E&I.) The way our cells use this E&I is key to health and disease, including cancer. So, the way cells and their DNA use the E&I we get form food has to be the main way we are going to defeat and prevent cancer. Cells send each other messages of E&I through a network of cell communication that also requires energy to perform optimally (Tumor biology: how signaling processes translate to therapy,” “Metabolic targeting as an anticancer strategy: dawn of a new era?” J. Science 2007;316:1.)

Once we understand that the processing of E&I produces antioxidants, or free radicals, or reactive oxygen species, then we may see why we need good food, full of antioxidants to neutralize these antioxidants for cells to work better. This is what we call our metabolism. Think of any motor you own: it cannot perform well if you give it substandard fuel and you don’t allow it to discharge the byproducts of combustion.

Now you may see why poo-poing antioxidants does not make sense. Besides, “antioxidants” are not just megavitamins: all micronutrients, all molecules contained in our food act like antioxidants. Those oncology reports that discount vitamins fail to understand these concepts.

OK, let’s be as careful and conservative as possible: don’t take antioxidants when you are getting filled with chemotherapy, because the antioxidants may inhibit the destructive action of these super-cocktails that are generally overused in the last 3 months of patients’ lives and cost too much. I feel that it is OK and advisable to consider using antioxidants of all stripes before and after your oncology does his/her thing. Hopefully, they will start to read nutrition journals, particularly the J. Nutrition and Cancer.

Just to make these points as clearly as possible, and to reassure you that the medical literature in support is quite extensive, I have included many references for you. Ignore them if you are in too much of a hurry…

References

Ginseng reduces cancer fatigue

Flaxseed slows growth of prostate cancer

Am Soc Clin Oncol Annual Meeting, 2007

B complex, glutathione reduce oxidative stress in liver cancer

European J. Nutrition 2007;46:293

CoQ10 potentiates Interferon in melanoma Rx with surgery

J. Melanoma Research 2007;17:177

Phytoestrogens improve prognosis of breast cancer

J. Nutrition and Cancer 2007;56:3

Bread enriched with green coffee extract increases resistance to oxidative stress and genotoxic activity in human cells of liver and colon

J. Nutrition and Cancer 2007;56:182

Antitumor, antimutagenic, antioxidant effects of pine needles

J. Nutrition and Cancer 2007;56:162

Resveratrol (skin of grapes) regulates mRNA expression to reduce risk of cancer

J. Nutrition and Cancer 2007;56:193

Resveratrol induces cell death in colorectal cancer cells

J. Carcinogenesis 2007;28:922

Resveratrol fights breast cancer

J. Pharmacology 2007;80:134

Quercetin reduces risk of colon cancer

J. Carcinogenesis 2007;28:1021

… and leukemia, J. Carcinogeneisis 2007;28:2105

Green tea reduces risk of breast cancer

J. Carcinigenesis 2007;28:1074

Significant chemopreventive effects of curcumin/turmetic

J. Adv Exp Med Biol 2007595:149

Sulphorapane (cruciferous) reduces risk of lung cancer

J. Carcinogenesis 2007;28:1058

Genistein (soy) potentiates the growth inhibitory effect of vitamin D on prostate cancer cells

J. Mol Cell Endo 2005;241:49

Assessment of the anti-genotoxic, anti-proliferative, and anti-metastatatic potential of crude watercress extract in human colon cancer cells,”

J. Nutrition and Cancer 2006;55:232

Fat, fiber, vegetables and micronutrients improve survival in post menopausal women with breast cancer

J. Nutrition and Cancer 2006;55:132

Curcumin/turmeric lowers risk of colon cancer

J. Nutrition and Cancer 2006;55:185

Curcumin lowers risk of prostate cancer

J. Carcinogenesis 2007;28:1188

Quercetin (bioflavonoid) increases glutathione, and reduces ROS to potentiate paclitaxel in treatment of hepatomas

J. Nutrition and Cancer 2006;55:201

Pomegranate for lung cancer

J. Carcinogenesis 2007;28:163

Caffeine lowers risk of skin cancer,

J. Carcinogenesis 2007;28:199

Garlic inhibits cancer cell invasion

J. Carcinogenesis 2005;28:23

Solar UVB and Vitamin D decrease risk of ovarian cancer

Am J. Preventive medicine 2006;31:512

Phytoestrogens improve prognosis of breast cancer

J. Nutrition and Cancer 2007;56:3

Genistein and quercetin supress growth of breast cancer cells,

J. Carcinogenesis 2007;28:93

No evidence of prostate cancer from phytoestrogens

J. Nutrition and Cancer 2007;56:31

D-limonene

· Citrus peel reduces risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, J. Nut Cancer 2000;37:161

· Reduction o risk of Breast cancer, J. Carcinogenesis 1989;10:781

Olive oil, J. Life Extension, September 2007, page 93

· High content of omega oils and polyphenols

· Modulation of cell signaling: reduction of heart disease, cancer and arthritis, J. Lipids 2004;39:1223

· Better lipid profile, J. Ann Int Med 2006;145:333

· 2 oz a day reduce CRP, Europ J. Clin Nut, March 21st, 2007

· Cancer risk reduction, Europ J. Cancer Prevention 2004;13:319, J. Curr Pharm Biotech 2006;7:495

· Less inflammation in arthritis, J. Nut 2005;21:131

· Oleocanthal in olive oil reduces inflammation like ibuprofen, J. Nature 2005;1:45

· Olive oil reduces H. pylori, J. Agri Food Chem 2007;55:680

· Sunlight and frying compromise olive oil

The American Institute for Cancer Research held an International Conference about Nutrition and Cancer in Washington, D.C. All the proceedings were published in the J. Nutrition, December 2004;134#12s. Here are the main points:

· Calorie restriction leads to less cancer, p3391s

· Omega 3 oils inhibit intestinal tumors, p3392s

· Chlorophyllin decrease cancer triggered by grilled meat.

· Tomatoes, I3C decrease prostate cancer through Glutathione pathway.

· Lack of Vitamin A compromised respiratory epithelium: lung cancer.

· More fiber, less cancer, p 3393s

· Personalized nutrition to work on phenotypes, p3513s

· 30-40% of cancers prevented by diet, 3515s.

· One drink per day increases breast cancer by 10%.

· It is essential that medical education be adjusted so that future physicians are prepared to deliver health care focusing on the maintenance of wellness, as well as the treatment of disease.” P3516s

· Selenium protects against cancer through Glutathione, p2899s

· Gazpacho is high in Vitamin C: it decreases oxidative stress, p3021s

· Different levels of Glutathione determine oxidative stress and genetic mutation, 3173s

· Phytochemicals also help regulate enzymes, metabolize xenobiotics and carcinogens, modulate receptors and cell signaling, and protect DNA form damage, p3175s.

· Lycopene has highest antioxidant activity. It is potentiated by Vitamin E, 3175s.

· Teas suppress tumors through antioxidant effect, 3177s.

· Antioxidants suppress apoptosis (E, NAC), 3179s.

· Adjunctive AO therapy does not reduce radiation or chemotherapy benefits. Carotenoids, vitamins, Glutathione, NAC have been used with no problems. Procedures better tolerated and patients lived longer. The group without supplementation had one tumor develop. The supplementing group had none develop, 3182s.

· Radiation reduces tissues antioxidants, 3207s.

· Antioxidants induce apoptosis in cancer cells and reduce painful side effects form radiation treatment.

· Vitamin E results in 15% increase in apoptosis of Glioblastoma multiforme.AO decrease damage I Chronic diseases.

· Vitamin C reduces peroxinitrates, marker of H. Pylori in gastritis, 3196s.

· AO progressively less as disease advances, 3197s.

· Glutathione determines sensitivity to oxidative stress, 3205s.

· Prostate cancer prevention: detoxify carcinogens. Main one: glutathione, 3211s.

Therapeutic applications of Whey protein,” J. Alternative Medicine Review 2004

· Biological components (lactoferrin, betalactoglobulin, alpha-lactalbumin, glycomicropeptide and immunoglobulins) have immune-enhancing properties. Also antioxidant, antihypertensive, antitumor, hypolipidemic, antiviral, antibacterial and chelating agent. They also help with exercise, building muscle mass, decreasing obesity and Osteoporosis.

· The primary mechanism of action is conversion of Cysteine to Glutathione. The latter is being investigated as anti-aging agent (J. Clin Invest Med 1989;12:343)

· The main proteins in milk are Casein (80%) and Whey (20%) Whey from buttermilk has Lipid Sphyngomyelin (it does not from cheese) Casein curds in stomach. Whey doesn’t. It is absorbed better and has slower transit through intestines.

· Fermented foods, milk have been associated with treatments for practically all ailments, i.e. Syra in Iceland.

· Whey is rich in all amino acids

· Lactoferrin: iron-binding glycoprotein. Non enzymatic antioxidant high in colostrum. It activates natural killer cells and it has anti-inflammatory, antifungal and antibacterial properties.

· Immunoglobulins: all of them

· Beta-lactoglobulin: half of proteins in Whey. Not found in human milk. It modulates lymphatic system. It reduces blood pressure through ACE inhibition (J. Dairy Res 2000;67:53) and it lowers cholesterol (J. Japan Soc Nut Food Sci 1996;49:303.)

· Alpha-Lactalbumin: 1/4 of proteins in Whey. Main protein in human milk. It is a chelator, so it decreases oxidative stress (J. Toxicology 1999;137:169.)

· Lactoperoxidase: Most abundant enzyme. All other digestive enzymes found in Whey. It catalyses peroxidation which go on to kill many bacteria.

· Glycomacropeptide: Protein without Phenylalanine to treat PKU.

· Bovine Serum Albumin: 15% of Whey protein

· Cancer treatment: Through Glutathione increasing in tissues, which stimulate immunity detoxify potential carcinogens (J. Anticancer Res 2000;20:4785 & J.Oncology 2001;19:221) Whey chelates Iron, which causes mutations and oxidative damage in tissues (European J. Cancer Prevention 1996;5:36.) Benefits in Colon cancer (J. Nut Cancer 2000;38:192,) Prostate cancer (J. Toxicol in Vitro 2003;17:27,) Bladder, Breast, Neuroblastoma, Mesothelioma, lung, Lymphoma, Osteosarcoma (J. Imm Invest 2002;31:137.)

· Hepatitis treatment: HCV and transaminases dropped (J. Med 2000;31:283.)

· HIV treatment: Glutathione goes up (typically low in HIV) Europ J. Nut 2002;41:12

· Antimicrobial: H. Pylori eradicated 100% when added to triple antibiotics, which eradicate HP 77% of the time (J. Clin Gastroent 2003;36:396.) Strep throat: better results with Whey added to abx (J. Biochem Cell Biol 2002;80:119.) Lactoferrin active against gut flora and Candida (J. Austr Dairy Tech 1988;5:16 and J. Applied Bacteriol 1994;77:208.)

· Exercise: it increases Glutathione, decreases inflammation and tendency to infections in overtraining.

· Obesity treatment: it increases lipolysis and increases muscle mass

· Colic and infant formula: richer in Probiotics.

· Osteoporosis: Milk Basic Protein increses bone mass more than calcium

· Gastrointestinal support: through Glutathione production. Less ulcers from alcohol

· Wound healing, even after surgery

Genistein,” J. Skin and Allergy News, November 2005, page 22

· Major active constituent of soy. Potent antioxidant and chemopreventive activity, AJCN 2005;57:135

· 1/5 of more than 4,500 peer review studies focus on anticancer activity: inhibition of tyrosine kinase, influence on cell cycles, delay of photoaging, J. Adv Exp Med Biol 2004;546:121

· Thus, is is associated with the prevention and treatment of breast, prostate and skin cancer, AJCN 2005;81s:284s, J. Nutrition 2003;133:3811s

· As shown below, it can help in the prevention and treatment of postmenopusal symptoms, osteoporosis, and cardiovascular issues, J. Nutrition 2003;133s:3811s

· It enhances the effects of radiation in the treatment of breast and prostate cancer, J. Adv Exp Med Biol 2004;546:121

· Reduces alopecia, J. Exp Derm 2003;12:30

· Reduces growth of renal cancer, J. Urology 2004;64:389

· Reduces incidence of prostate and bladder cancer, AJCN 2005;81s:284s

· Reduces photoaging from UVB exposure, J. Nutrition 2003;133:3811s, especially when coupled with NAC, J. Invest Derm 2003;120:835

· It enhances melatonin production in whites: more protection, J. Adv Exp Med Biol 2004;546:121

· Equol lotion lowers skin tumor incidence, J. Photochem Photobiol 2005;81:32

It inhibits H202, ROS, TPA, while increasing glutathione activity, J. Nut Can 1996;25:1

N-Acetyl-Cysteine, NAC” J. Skin and Allergy News, August 2006, page 36

· Derivative from amino acid L-cysteine. NAC is cell-permeable, water soluble

· NAC is a precursor to Glutathione, the most powerful antioxidant, Int J. Tox 2004;23:239

· NAC is used as a drug (Mucormist) to treat Tylenol overdoses in ER

· Powerful antioxidant, free radical scavenger against toxic exposures, Int J. Toxicology 2004;23:239

· It reduces risk of cancer, J. Cancer Letters 1999;147:109

· It delays tumor formation by 38%, J. Nutrition Cancer 2002;43:59

· NAC protects against light damage. Good to slow down photoaging, J. Biochem Biophys Res Comm 2002;298:289, J. Invest Derm 2005;124:70

· Damage from UVC lamps in mice delayed 90 days when NAC was given, J. Carcinogenesis 2005;26:657

· NAC reduces reactive oxygen species in the skin, J. Biochem… 2004;319:321

· NAC delays toxic effect of Ibuprofen-like drugs, J. Photochem Photobiol 2003;77:343

· Carotenoids reduce risk of prostate cancer

J. Nutrition and Cancer 2006;53:127

Quercetin reduces activity of oral cancer cells

J. Nutrition and Cancer 2006;53:220

Olives induces apoptosis in human colon cancer cells

J. Nutrition 2006;136:2553

Immunity and antioxidant capacity in humans is enhanced by consumption of a dried, encapsulated fruit and vegetables juice concentrate,”

J. Nutrition 2006;136:2606

Quercetin reduces risk of cancer

J. Clin Vaccine Imm 2006;13:319

Glutathione genotype and cruciferous intake: reduction of breast cancer risk

J. Carcinogenesis 2006;27:1876

Sulpharanes decrease risk of osteosarcoma

J. Carcinogenesis 2006;27:1768

Substituting non-animal fat for animal fat reduces risk of ovarian cancer

J. Nutrition 2006;136:2362

Curcumin reduces risk of colon cancer

J. Carcinogenesis 2006;27:1636

Fruits and berries decrease DNA oxidative damage

J. Nutrition and Cancer 2006;54:143

Antioxidants lower risk of gastric cancer

J. Nutrition and Cancer 2006;55:71

Mastic oil from pistacia lentiscus helps inhibit growth of leukemia cells through attenuation of angiogenesis

J. Nutrition and Cancer 2006;55:86

Billberry extracts induce gene expression, lower cancer risk

J. Nutrition and Cancer 2006;54:94

Black chokeberry reduces risk of cancer

J. Food Science 2006;71:C480

Ellagic acid and natural sources of ellagitannins reduce risk of intestinal tumors in mice

J. Nutrition and Cancer 2006;54:79

Vitamin D deficiency increases risk of gastric lymphomas

Scandinavian J. Gastroenterology 2006;41:673

Glycyrrhizin/Licorice injections decrease risk of cancer in Chronic Hepatitis C

J. Digestive Diseases and Science 2006;51:603

Alternative Medicine Review 2005;10:230,

J. Skin and Allergy News, March 2007, p24 & April 2007, p30

  • Sweetwood, Glyzyrrhiza glabra. Member pea family
  • Components: triterpene saponins, flavonoids, polysaccharides, pectins, simple sugars, amino acids, mineral salts. Yellow color from flavonoids (liquiritin). Isoflavone glabridin has antioxidant activity and estrogen like activity
  • Main constituent glycyrrhizic acid processed by Beta glucuronidase in intestines, and metabolized to glucoronide and sulfate in Liver
  • Lichochalcone A from Chinese licorice has anti-inflammatory anti tumor properties inmouse skin papilloma, (J. Planta Med 1999;57:221.) Also, it has shown antimicrobial, antiparasitic properties (J. Int Immunopharm 2002;2:545.)
  • Lichochalcone A also has antioxidant properties in the SOD, xanthinesystems, J. Bioorg Med Chem 1998;6:339.) It is also considered a phytoestrogen with antitumor activity (J. Anticancer Res 2000;20:2653.)
  • Anti tumor activity, i.e., breast cancer, J. Cancer Research 2000;60:5704

British J. Nut 2007;97:823

EFA for cancer cachexia

Folate, riboflavin reduce risk of endometrial cancer

J. Cancer Epi Biomarkers 2007;16:281

Lower CEA levels in breast cancer when Tamoxifen is helped by riboflavin, CoQ10, and niacin

J. Biol Pharm Bull 2007;30:367

Highest levels of Folate, B12 lower risk of breast cancer 36%

J. Cancer Epidem Biomarkers 2006;15:443

JAMA 2006;296:1371

Fatty fish reduces risk of Renal Cell Carcinoma

JAMA 2006;296:32

Vitamin E derivative packs anticancer punch.”

Am J. Epidemiology 2006;163:645

Ginseng improves survival and quality of life in patients with breast cancer

J. Leukemia Research 2006;30:707

Green tea may produce clinical improvement in CLL

Antioxidants reduce risk of prostate cancer

J. National Cancer Institute 2006;98:245

Am J. Epidemiology 2005;162:1114, J. Arch Int Med 2006;166:2478

Exercise lowers risk of breast cancer

Vit C helps curb DNA damage in diabetics

J. Diabetic Med 2005;22:1347

Selenium reduces risk of prostate cancer

J. Cancer Cause Control 2005;16:1125

2 cups of tea decrease risk of ovarian cancer by 46%, with each additional daily cup conferring an 18% lower risk

J. Arch Int Med 2005;165:2683

American Society Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, March 2006

What, you are still reading? I hope it is because you have an academic interest in antioxidants, and not because you have been diagnosed with a cancer…

J. Clinical Pharmacology 2003;74:288

Prenatal vitamins reduce risk of leukemia by 36%, neuroblastoma by 57%

J. Leukemia Research November 30th, 2005

Green tea increases rate of remissions in Leukemia

J. Cancer Research 2006;66:1234

Green tea/Catechins reduce premalignant prostate lesions and symptoms of BPH

J. Ethnopharm 2004;90:161

Mangosteen: antioxidant, antiproliferative in breast cancer,

J. Biochem Pharm 2002;63:73

Inhibition of oxidation, inflammation in Glioma cells by mangosteen

J. Carcinogenesis 2006;27:287

I3C lowers risk of colon cancer. It works by increasing detoxification of Xenoestrogens

J. Lancet 2005;366:1558

Cruciferous veggies lower risk of lung cancer

Am J. Clinical Nutrition 2006;83:331

EPA incorporated into plasma better in elderly than young, so, the former have more anti-prostaglandin activity from EPA

NEJM 2006;354:684

Calcium and Vitamin D do not lower risk of colon cancer. This study did not use Magnesium, and they did not use the better dose of Vitamin D, 1,000 IU. They only used 400 IU. Furthermore, they followed patients for only 7 years, which is less than the latency of colon cancer.

Canadian Medical Association J. 2006;174:937

Vitamin C IV to raise levels above 1,000 micromols/liter are toxic to may types of cancer cells. Patient got two 30 gm IVs every week for three months, then 30 gm once a month for 4 years. Now, he is free of metastasis from primary bladder cancer

J. Nutrition 2006;22:136 & J. Pain Symptom management 2006;32:551

L-carnitine 2 gm three times a day reduces fatigue in cancer patients

British J. Nut 2005;94:510

EFA reduce risk of colon cancer

J. Lancet 2005;366:1558

Broccoli, cabbage decrease risk of lung cancer

J. National Cancer Institute 2005;97:1494

Soy does not increase cancer. It may decrease it.

J. Medical Oncology 2005;22:129

Lysine, Proline, Ascorbic acid, and green tea extract significantly suppressed tumor growth of breast cancer cells in mice.

J. Clinical Oncology 2005, July 18th

Antioxidants decrease adverse effects of radiation therapy in head and neck cancer

J. Tumori 2005;91:135

L-Carnitine reduces chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy.

J. Nutrition 2005;135:2124

EPA suppresses cell proliferation in breast cancer xenografts in rats

J. Proceedings National Academy of Science, September 12th, 2005;102:13604

Vitamin C 10 gm IV helps fight cancer. It destroyed most cancer cells in vitro

They used it 5 days a week for three weeks

JNCI 2005;97:396

Higher concentrations of major vitamin E fractions lowers Prostate cancer risk

J. Skin and Allergy News, March 2005, page 45

Glutamine (30 gms/day) limits radiation injury in breast cancer

J. Nutrition 2005;135:592

Lycopene reduces risk of Prostate cancer

J. FASEB 2005;272. J. Nutrition 2005;135:287

Lycopene inhibits growth of prostate cancer cells.

J. Nutrition 2005;135:129

Beta carotene decreases risk of colon cancer.

American J. Epidemiology 2005;161:153

Carotenoids lower risk of Breast cancer.

AJCN 2005;81Number 1Supp

Polyphenols and glutathione synthesis regulation” (page 277s) is their main mechanism of action. They increase the intracellular concentration of Glutathione, the most potent of all antioxidants. Glutathione is indispensable in gene regulation, enzyme activation, protein function, immune system function and prevention of oxidation. Consequently, “glutathione is important in many diseases and regulation of intracellular glutathione concentrations is one mechanism by which diet influences disease development.” This is why glutathione has been shown to be helpful in Parkinson’s disease (page 281s and J. Biol Chem 2002;277:48295) regression of tumors, HIV and lung disease.

JAMA 2005;293:86

Magnesium lowers the risk of colon cancer

J. Family Practice News, February 2005, page 82

Childhood soy reduces chances of future breast cancer risk.

J. Skin and Allergy News, January 2005, 18

Quercetin (flavonoid in fruits and veggies) lowers risk of skin cancer.

J. Neurology 2005;64:26

Vitamin E to prevent neuropathy after chemotherapy.

J. Archives of Internal Medicine 2004;164:2335

After 7.5 years vitamins and minerals lower cancer incidence.

J. Urology 2004;172:2426

Phytoestrogens form Belamcanda chinensis have antiproliferative effect on Prostate cancer cells in vitro.

JNCI 2004;96:921

Calcium carbonate prevents against colon polyps

International J, Cancer, October 2004

Resveratrol in red wine reduces risk of prostate cancer

British J. Nutrition 2004;91:805

Probiotics lower the risk of colon cancer

J. Nat’l Cancer Institute 2004;96:1015

Calcium lowers risk of colon cancer

J. Cancer, July 15th, 2004

EFA decrease wasting in cancer treatment

Am J. Epi 2004;160:68

AO reduce risk of lung cancer in smokers

JAMA 2004;292:358

Vitamin K2 decreases risk of Hepatocellular carcinoma.

J. Nutrition 2004;134:1181

Dietary fiber decreases CRP

J. Nutrition 2004;134:1134

Breast cancer risk is inversely associated with intake of cruciferous veggies

J. Nutrition 2004;134:1145

B-sitosterol (phytosterol) protect against breast cancer

AJCN 2004;79:s1199-1146

Symposium on CLA: it boosts immune function, but it may decrease peripheral insulin sensitivity. CLA can be helpful in Hyperparathyroid treatment.

AJCN 2004;79:1029

Low antioxidant status associated with more adverse side effects of chemotherapy in children with ALL.

J. Herbalgram 2004;62:50, JNCI 2003;95:1563

Prostate cancer lowered 25% in rats fed tomato powder. Also lower risk of skin and stomach cancer

AJCN 2004;79:935

EFA lower risk of cancer

AJCN 2004;79:362

Vit D reduces risk of cancer. Minimum dose is 1,000 IU

Int J. Cancer 2004;108:733

Grape seed extract inhibits advanced prostate cancer growth

J. Nutrition 2004;134:482

Butyrate protects against colon cancer. It’s made by probiotics

Annual Meeting American Association of Cancer Research, Orlando, 2004

Vitamin E decreases risk of bladder cancer.

J. Lancet 2001;358:641

Less colon cancer with Vit D

J. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers Prevention 1998;7:391

Vit D decreases prostate cancer

J. Nutrition 2001;131:3056S

Macrobiotic diet lowers risk of Cancer

J. Nutrition 2000;130:2127

Phytosterols fight cancer

J. Nutrition Research 1989;9:383

EFA reduce mammary tumor development

J. Nutrition 2003;133:3748S

Folate and MTHFR polymorphism affect cancer risk

Am J. Clin Nut 2004;79:80

Low selenium linked to Esophageal, gastric cancer and heart disease, Strokes and higher mortality.

AJCN 2004;79:274

Plant foods, fibers reduce risk of rectal cancer.

J. Nutrition 2003;133:3819s

Genistein for photoprotection.

J. Nutrition 2003;133:3794s

A multivitamin is OK in cancer treatment.

Am J. Clinical Nutrition 2003;78:1219

Lycopene, Beta carotene reduce colon cancer risk.

J. Nat’l Cancer Instit 2003;95:1556

Zinc reduces risk of Prostate cancer

Am J. Epidemiology 2003;158:621

Past, not present use of multivitamins reduces risk of colon cancer

JAMA 2004;292:358

Vitamin K lowers risk Liver cancer by 20%

British J. Urology 2001;88:63

Acetyl-L-Carnitine 1gm BID better than tamoxifen

NEJM 2003;348:2595

Mediterranean diet lowers mortality due to coronary disease and cancer

J. Nat’l Cancer Institute 2003;95:906

Soy reduces risk of Breast cancer

J. Pharmaceutical Biology 2002;40:s6

Anticancer effects of Soy.

J. National Cancer Institute, June 18th, 2003

Miso soup three times a day reduces risk of Breast cancer.

J. Agricult Food Chem 2002;50:2926

Raspberry (Ellagic acid) reduces risk of Liver cancer. Ellagic acid from pomegranate induces glutathione in Liver (J. Carcinogenesis 1996;17:265.)

J. Lancet 2003;361:1487, 1491, 1496

Fiber decreases risk of Colon cancer

J. Proc Nat’l Acad Sci, April 2003

L-Theanine: 5 cups a day of tea increases immune system function.

J. Nutrition 2001;131:3056s, 3047s

The microbiotic diet in cancer.” “Specific amino acid deficiency (arginine) alters the expression of genes in human melanoma and other tumors.”

J. Lancet 2003;361:861

Selenium, Vit E, Lycopene, Phytoestrogens reduce risk of Prostate cancer.

Int J. Cancer 2002;99:238

Vegetarians reduce risk of breast cancer.

J. Breast Cancer Research 2003;5:R59

One egg a day reduces risk of Breast Cancer in teens.

J. Current Opinion Clin Nut Metab Care 2001;4:433

Fatty acid regulation of gene expression.”

J. Breast Cancer Research 2003;5:R59

One egg a day reduces the risk of Breast Cancer

J. Nutrition 2001;131L:3041s

Short change fatty acids inhibit invasive colon cancer...”

J. Cancer Research 2001;61:1477

Combination of phenylbutyrate and 13-cis-retinoic acid inhibits prostate tumor growth and angiogenesis.”

J. Nutrition 2001;131:3109s

Insulin, IGF-1 and colon cancer.”

J. Int Cancer Therapies 2002;1:7

Nutritional and botanical (bromelain, curcumin) modulation of the inflammatory cascade (iecosanoids, cyclooxygenases and lipoxygenases as an adjunct in cancer therapy.”

J. Int Med 2001;250:280, J. Gastroenterology 2002;123:985 and Am J. Clin Nut 2002;76:889

Fruits and veggies to prevent cancer.

J. Agricult Food Chem 2002;50:2926

Raspberry reduces risk of Liver cancer.

Am J. Clin Nut 2002;76:865

Catechins delay tumor onset.

J. Cancer Research 1992;52:4021

Limonene regresses mammary carcinomas

I just wanted to rub it in a bit. Hard to believe that despite all the evidence, some oncologists still tell their patients that diet has nothing to do with cancer, or with its treatment…

Beta glucoronidase function of intestinal flora needed for food-borne carcinogens to become genotoxic. In other words, gut detoxification reduces the risk of cancer

J. Carcinogenesis 2007;28:2419

Macrobiotics diet reduces cancer.

J. Nut 2001;131:3056s

Arginine deficiency alters genes = cancer

J. Nut 2001;131:3047s

Fatty acids regulate gene expression

J. Curr Opinion Clin Nut Met Care 2001;4:433

Fish oil suppresses tumor necrosis factor

Am J. Clin Nut 2002;76:454

SCFA inhibit invasive colon cancer

J. Nut 2001;131l:3041s

Bromelain reversibly inhibits invasive properties of Glioma cells

J. Neoplasia 2001;3:469

Pyridoxal Supplementation Reduces Cell Proliferation and DNA Synthesis in Estrogen Dependent and Independent Mammary Carcinoma Cell Lines

J. Nutrition 2001;131:2227

Cruciferous veggies fight cancer

J. Carcinogenesis 2001;22:1413

Veggies with Sulfur reduce cancer risk (onions, garlic, cruciferous.)

AJCN 2006;84:1027

Aerosolized Vitamin A prevents formation of pre malignant cells in bronchial dysplasia

European Respiratory Soc Annual Congress, 2001 in Berlin. J Respiratory Reviews, November 2001, p 18 [The articles that showed that Vitamin A is toxic were done on Scandinavian Vodka drinkers who also smoked a lot: their Livers were not in shape, so they could not handle the extra Vitamin A.]

Low fat diet prevents recurrence of breast cancer

J. Family Practice News, January 15th, 2007, p1

Breast Cancer Symposium, sponsored by Cancer Therapy and Research Center, San Antonio, 2005

Glutamine cubs radiation dermatitis

Melatonin for cancer,” J. Family Practice News, February 15th, 2006, page 60

· Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative effects.

· Anticancer effects: downregulation of oncogene expression, inhibition of growth factors, suppression of linoleic acid uptake by tumor cells, and antiangiogenic effects

· Melatonin also modulates sytostatic and cytotoxic effects of chemotherapy agents, J. Clinical Oncology 2002;20:2575.

· 10 randomized trials of melatonin and cancer, a total of 643 patients. They got chemotherapy and melatonin 20 mg IM. None in placebo group achieved a complete response, but 5% did in the melatonin group. Partial response was seen in 29% of melatonin group, but only 15% in placebo group. One year survival was 51% in melatonin group, and 23% in chemo alone group. Chemotherapy toxicity was significantly lower with melatonin, European J. Cancer 1999;35:1688.

· Patients with small cell lung cancer got chemo, and 20 mg oral melatonin. A complete response was seen in 4% of melatonin group, and none in chemo alone group. A partial response was seen in 31% of melatonin, and 18% in chemo alone. None of the patients treated with chemo alone were alive in 2 years, while 6% were in melatonin group. The latter had better quality of life, J. Pineal Research 2003;35:12.

· Patients with brain and renal cancer showed relative risk reductions ranging from 20-57% when they took melatonin, J. Pineal Research 2005;39:360.

J. Nutrition 2007;137:964

Soy helps mitigate effect of xenoestrogens on prostate

J. Nutrition 2007;137:999

Diet high in fruits and low in meat decreases colon cancer

Am J. Gastroent 2005;100:2789

Chicken lowers risk of colon polyp regrowth

J. Am Coll Card 2005;46:1864

Phenolic compounds (anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti clotting) improve endothelial function

JAMA 2004;292:671

To ‘E’ or not to ‘E,’ vitamin E’s role in health and disease is the question.” Mostly gamma tocopherol reduces the risk of prostate cancer. Delta and gamma tocotrienols Reduce the risk of breast cancer

J. Biochemistry and Biophysiology 1994;200:1136

Lipoic Acid 600 mg protects against radiation.

J. National Cancer Institute 1999;91:535. J. Lancet 2000;356:724.

American J. Epidemiology 2001;151:693. JAMA 2001;285:769

Fruits and vegetables affect genes that fight cancer.

J. Patient Care, July 2000, p 85

Dr. Gonzales’ treatment of pancreatic cancer has been refunded by the National Institute of Health. With the Mediterranean diet, coffee enemas and digestive enzymes, he has prolonged the life of pancreatic cancer patients from an average survival of 6 months to 3.5 years.

European J. Cancer Prevention 1998;7:253

Refined sugars predispose to cancer.

J. National Cancer Institute 1999;91:529. J. Digestive Diseases Science 2001;46:86

National Institute of Environmental Health, July 2001

Saturated fats, red meat, especially grilled and well done lead to cancer.

European J. Cancer Prevention 1998;2:s63.

European Prospective Investigation of Cancer and Nutrition, London, July 2001

High fiber diets prevent cancer

J. American College of Nutrition 1999;18:13

Antioxidants protect us.

J. Biochemistry Biophysiologic Research Communications 1995;212:172

Co Q 10 helps prevent cancer.

J. Trends in Neurosciences, July 2005

People with Parkinson’s Disease seem to have a lower risk of getting cancer. The link appears to be a gene related to how we handle CoQ10

J. Science 2005;309:48

Mitochondrial DNA mutations, oxidative stress and aging.”

European J. Cancer 1996;32a:1340

Melatonin, too.

American College of Nutrition 2000;19:563s

Lycopine in tomatoes helps prostate cancer.

J. Carcinogenesis 1985;6:1735

N-acetyl-cysteine helps the liver to detoxify.

J. National Cancer Institute 2000;92:1753

Selenium helps prevent prostate cancer.

J. Gynecology Oncology 2004;93:320

Selenium potentiates chemotherapy in Ovarian cancer

J. Lancet 2000;356:724

Maceration of glucosinolates (in cruciferous vegetables) produces the enzyme Mirosinase, which produces Indole-3-carbinol, phenyl isocyanate, and sulphorane, which modulate gene expression.

J. Oncogene 2001;20:2927

I3C inhibits cell growth and apoptosis in GI tract and prostate cells.

J. Carcinogenesis 2001;1:22

Glutathione in isothiocyanates for induction of phase 2 detoxification enzymes.

J. European Gastroenterology Hepatology 2001;13:1041

Anticancer therapy: diversion of polyamines in the gut.”

J. Prostate 2001;46:98

Genistein helps.

J. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 2001;86:3045, J. Lancet 1997;350:990

J. Env Health Presp 1995;103:103 and J. Nut and Cancer 2001;39:132

Soy reduces risk of breast and ovarian cancer in premenopausal women. Soybean saponins inhibit cell proliferation in colon cancer cells.

J. Nutrition 2001;131:3095s, 3027s

Soy for breast cancer survivors...” “Phytochemicals from cruciferous plants protect against cancer by modulating carcinogen metabolism.”

J. Clinical Cancer Research 2001;7:2041

Omegas 3 increase potency of doxirubicin

J. Carcinogenesis 1999;20:1831 and J. Nut Cancer 1996;26:159, 2000;37:187

Flaxseed oil decrease breast cancer.

J. Med Hypothesis 2003;60:615

EPA and COX2-I for Mantle Cell Lymphoma

JNCI 2001;93;1872

Lycopene protects against prostate cancer by helping prevent oxidative DNA damage.

Annual Digestive Disease Week, San Francisco 2002

Vitamin K improves survival of Liver cancer patients.

J. Nutrition and cancer 2001;41:165

Ovarian cancer cells inhibited by isoflavones

J. Nutrition and cancer 2001;41:57 and J. Nutrition 2001;131:3294

I3C and DIM reduce cervical cancer.

J. Carcinogenesis 2002;23:1767

Efficacy of I3C

J. Nutrition 2003;133:2448s

I3C and DIM regulate transcription of Breast cancer cells.

J. Cancer Epidem Biomarkers Prev 1995;4:877

Watercress to reduce risk of lung cancer.

Vitamin D and cancer: (J. Nutritional and Environmental Medicine 2001;11:237. Same concepts in British J. Nutrition 2003;89:552

· Vitamin D in preventive medicine: are we ignoring the evidence?” Vitamin D at current RDA is too low. A lack of Vitamin D is associated with Osteoporosis, disturbed muscle function, Tuberculosis, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Multiple Sclerosis, Inflammatory Bowel disease, Hypertension, Cancer, Diabetes.

· Toxic above 40K IU. 400IU requirement set from quantity of Vit D in one tsp of cod liver oil. Too low for adults, whose skin loses ability to make vit D. Best 1,000IU

· D2 made by yeast assumed to be the equivalent of D3, needed by humans, but it is not

· Vit D deficiency associated with poor peripheral thyroid activation, immune function, cancer, Syndrome x, and MS

· Non-bone consequences of Vit D deficiency:

· Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, bladder, esophagus, kidney, lung, pancreas, rectum, stomach and corpus lutei cancers.

· MS, High blood pressure, J. Bone and Mineral Res 2001;16:1115

· Diabetes, pneumonia, tuberculosis, breast cancer, prostate cancer, colon cancer.

· Sunlight (Vitamin D) may reduce the risk of Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma,” Armstrong BK, Annual Meeting American Association for Cancer Research, Orlando, 2004. J. Family Practice News, November 2004, page 67.

Vitamin D3 reduces tumor burden of Thyroid cancer

J. Endocrinology 2004;145:5840

Vitamin D lacking in colon cancer

J. Nutrition 2005;135:2350

From a forum in San Diego, February 23rd, 2002 (Am. J. Clin Nut 2002;75supp:)

· * P349 Vitamin C before Stem cell transplant in breast cancer increases success rate.

· * P388 Phytoestrogens lower risk of hepatocellular cancer

· * P418 Glycine helps colon cancer.

Lycopene, the antioxidant responsible for the red color of tomatoes:

· Scavenger for reactive oxygen species. Twice as powerful as betacarotene

J. Critical Rev Food Sci 2000;40:1

· Anticancer effects, particularly on Lung, Prostate, Colon

J. Nat’l Cancer Instit 1999;91:317, J. Pharmaceutical Biology 2002;40:59s

· Best bioavailability from tomato paste

J. Nut 2002;132:404

So, was that enough?

2 Comments:

At March 5, 2008 at 9:34:00 AM PST , Anonymous Anonymous said...

Nice! You found research even I did not! Keep up the great work!

Thomas Easley

 
At October 31, 2014 at 6:43:00 PM PDT , Blogger DR K said...

THIS IS TREMENDOUSLY INFORMATIVE
YOU ARE TO BE COMMENDED. I HAVE LOTS OF LITERATURE AND INFORMATION AND YOU HAVE ADDED TO IT AND ORGANIZED IT NICELY.
IT IS STILL IMPORTANT 6 YEARS LATER. THANKS FOR THE GOOD WORK

KEVIN HOLDER MD

 

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